Essay Example on Theories of Social and Political Change

Karl Marx, in hypothesizing social change, explains that it is natural in all humans and that it stems out of the realization and the alienation to the transformative human nature. This included both humans and material objects.With age, therefore, people come to realize that they possess both potential and actual self (Callinicos, 2010). The actual self refers to the physical humanity which grows and eventually dies. On the contrary, the potential self refers to the internal ability of humans to use their strength through their labor to change their surroundings and in the process acquire wealth and power. The two potentials compel humans to protest any form of force that is likely to restrain their freedom of choice to change.

MarxпїЅs ideas explained the labor conflicts, class struggles and the ideas of false conscious. Given the transformative human nature, it becomes natural for humans to struggle for a higher economic class than their peers especially after the realization that with a free mind and appropriate technical knowhow, one easily moves from one social class to another (Harper, 1993). The class model of stratification is less binding than the caste system and gives people the freedom to move either up or down depending on oneпїЅs strengths. In this explanation still, Marx explains that it is natural for humans to resist any form of confinement. Humans value their freedom which they use, in most cases, to determine their social, political and economic alienation.


Most resistances and revolutions arise from confinements to either thought or economic potential. This idea explains the modern day activists movements which rise in opposition to an oppressive society. In the modern society, most uprisings seek to defend the rights of the minority groups which the society fails to notice (Bottomore, 1998).

The LGBT social movement is an organization that defends the rights of the lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals who are a minority group in the American society. This group seeks to create a society that is just, fair, and treats everybody equally despite their sexual orientation. Apparently, the American society has often rejected the ideas of same sex marriages and relationships. According to most people, such acts are unnatural and devoid of any religious orientation. Given these beliefs, the society has regarded those engaging in such acts as outcasts and unworthy to be let free. This is a fact that resulted in intense social discrimination against people of such orientation.

Such maltreatments resulted in a fearful gay and lesbian community in which everyone regarded the natural act as a sin and therefore a possible curse since the gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transsexuals have no control over their sexuality. This abode fear among the group most of whom decided to leave the country or to compromise on their freedom. It is for the purposes of reversing such confining mindsets that a section of the American society formed the LGBT social movement (Haralambos & Holborn, 2004). This group has a number of objectives key among which is to delineate some of these misunderstood personalities to the American society and the rest of the world with time. The fear directed at the group for a long time made most of such sexually different people to live in fear and in secrecy. The social group seeks to revamp the morale of such people and add purpose to their lives. It seeks to achieve this by making them understand their similarity with the rest of the population and motivate them enough to make them live normal lives within the culturally diverse populated society.

In the understanding that unity is power, the group seeks to mobilize the gays, lesbians and other people of ambiguous sexual orientation thereby earning them some political relevance and recognition. In retrospect, the group gives economic power and social space for their members and seeks to create a holistic society which understands that sexuality is private matter and with the free mind, everyone has the right to choose how to live without any unprecedented discrimination as has been the case against the gays and lesbians in the American and many other societies that still discriminate gays and lesbians (Eisenstadt, 1973).
This far, the association has developed the American society into one that understands the different sexual orientation and therefore appreciates everyone for his or her sexuality.

The gay and lesbians among other sexually uniquely individuals have freedoms to access public places and they enjoy similar laws that apply to other upright members of the society. The works of this movement have led the president among other prominent people to appreciate the existence of such people and vowed to protect their interest. They are not a minority group anymore as more people keep coming to the limelight prophesizing their misconstrued sexuality. Apparently, the previous society had confined quite a section of the society most of who find it easier to come out and publicly declare their sexuality (Calhoun, 2002).

From the context of the LGBT social movement, change comes from the existence of a social group previously considered not to exist. The fact that people had taken sex to be a physical thing for a long time resulted in a number of misinformation compelling the society to punish some of those they found to relate unconventionally (Giddens, 2006). However, just as the name suggests, movements rely on the power of the masses. The more the people realized their unique sexuality the more they decided to demand for an equal space in the society as the rest of the sexually upright population. Change, just like sexuality, is a psychological factor. The group decided to work hard and earn the understanding of the rest of the population. They understood that after influencing the rest of the population, they would possibly let them coexist and so they did.

The classic higelian to social change explains that it arises where two conflicting forces meet and one succeeds in influencing the other otherwise. This was the case with the LGBT movement; the society had the two conflicting sides aligned on sexual orientations. The change, therefore, began with the realization that the gays and lesbians had quite a number and was a force on its own (Hobsbawm, 2011). They therefore merged and came out as a potential force to oppose the mistreatment they had faced for a while in the subjective past. Their rise led to the two sides conflicting with one supporting the rights of the gay while the other determined on opposing them. The two groups later pacified their animosity with the upright group accepting that indeed the gays had the number and they therefore had the right to enjoy human rights and freedoms just as any other.